In general, assays and procedures are developed as needed for the execution of new clinical studies. Several procedures are currently performed on a routine basis, and multiple assays are under development for pending clinical projects.


    • Antigen-specific cytokine production (using ELISpot analysis) and CTL activity of freshly isolated or in vitro expanded T cells
    • PHA-stimulated T cell proliferation
    • Serum analysis of cytokines by ELISA or Cytokine Protein Array
    • Flow cytometric analysis of hematopoietic and T cell subsets, including peptide/HLA tetramer staining of T cells
    • Induced intracellular cytokines by flow cytometry
    • RT-PCR for detection of tumor antigen gene expression
    • Western blot analysis from tumor specimens or PBMC
    • Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay
    • Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor biopsies (e.g. expression of HLA, TAP, tumor antigens, apoptotic cells)
    • Real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in tumor biopsies
    • Expansion of clinical grade dendritic cell subsets
    • RNA preparation for gene microarray analysis

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